GS M Paper II
- AYUSH Mission to remain centrally sponsored
- To reduce the burden on the country’s healthcare infrastructure, the Cabinet approved continuation of the National AYUSH Mission as a centrally sponsored scheme till March 2026.
- Under the scheme, old and traditional medicinal systems would be promoted and AYUSH wellness centres, medical colleges, hospitals and dispensaries will be set up and upgraded.
- The Mission, launched in 2014, is being implemented by the Ministry of AYUSH with the objective of providing “cost effective AYUSH services, with universal access through upgrading AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries, co-location of AYUSH facilities at Primary Health Centers, Community Health Centers and District Hospitals.
- AYUSH: Traditional & Non-Conventional Systems of Health Care and Healing Which Include Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa-Rigpa and Homoeopathy etc.
- The central schemes are divided into Central Sector Schemes and Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS).
Central sector schemes:
- These schemes are 100% funded by the Central government.
- Formulated on subjects mainly from the Union List.
- g.: Bharatnet, Namami Gange-National Ganga Plan, etc.
Centrally Sponsored Schemes:
- These are the schemes by the centre where there is financial participation by both the centre and states.
- CSS are again divided into Core of the Core Schemes, Core Schemes and Optional schemes.
Government Policies and implementation issues:
- Commission to examine the issue of Sub-categorization:
- Cabinet approves Extension of term of the commission constituted under Article 340 of the constitution to examine the issue of Sub-categorization within other Backward Classes in the Central List.
- The commission, which took charge on October 11, 2017, is headed by retired Delhi high court chief justice G Rohini.
- It was set up to examine the possibility of creating categories within OBCs for the reservation to ensure “equitable distribution” of representation among all OBC communities.
- Its objectives include working out a mechanism, criteria, norm and parameters through a scientific approach for sub-categorisation within the OBCs and identifying the respective castes or communities or sub-castes or synonyms in the Central List of OBCs and classifying them into their respective sub-categories.
- It lays down conditions for the appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of the backward classes.
- The President may by order appoint a Commission consisting of such persons as he thinks fit to investigate the conditions of socially and educationally backward classes within the territory of India.
- Dismissal of J&K govt employees: What the Constitution says
- Lt Governor Manoj Sinha has dismissed 11 Jammu and Kashmir government employees for alleged terror links under provisions of Article 311(2)(c) of the Constitution.
- Article 311 of the Constitution deals with ‘Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State’.
- Under Article 311(2), no civil servant can be “dismissed or removed or reduced in rank except after an inquiry in which he has been informed of the charges and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of those charges’’.
- Article 311(2) (a): The safeguard of an inquiry also does not apply in cases of conviction on a criminal charge.
- Article 311(2) (b): The safeguard of an inquiry also does not apply “where the authority is satisfied that for some reason, to be recorded by that authority in writing, it is not reasonably practicable to hold such inquiry”.
- Article 311(2) (c): It also shall not apply “where the President or the Governor, as the case may be, is satisfied that in the interest of the security of the State it is not expedient to hold such inquiry”.
GS M Paper III
Science and Technology
- What is UV-C technology?
- Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh has said that Ultraviolet-C or UV-C Disinfection Technology will soon be installed in Parliament for the “mitigation of airborne transmission of SARS-COV-2’’
Features of this system:
- The UV-C air duct disinfection system was developed by CSIR-CSIO (Central Scientific Instruments Organisation).
- The system is designed to fit into any existing air-ducts and the virucidal dosages using UV-C intensity and residence time can be optimised according to the existing space.
- The virus is deactivated in any aerosol particles by the calibrated levels of UV-C light.
- It can be used in auditoriums, malls, educational Institutions, AC buses, and in railways.
What is UV?
- Ultraviolet (UV) is a type of light or radiation naturally emitted by the Sun. It covers a wavelength range of 100-400 nm. The human visible light ranges from 380–700 nm.
- UV is divided into three bands: UV-C (100-280 nm), UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm).
- UV-A and UV-B rays from the Sun are transmitted through our atmosphere and all UV-C is filtered by the ozone layer.
- UV-B rays can only reach the outer layer of our skin or epidermis and can cause sunburns and are also associated with skin cancer.
- UV-A rays can penetrate the middle layer of your skin or the dermis and can cause aging of skin cells and indirect damage to cells’ DNA.
- UV-C radiation from man-made sources has been known to cause skin burns and eye injuries.
- New European climate law: ‘Fit for 55’
- The European Commission’s plan, “Fit for 55,” calls for its 27 member states to cut their output of greenhouse gases by 55% by 2030, compared with 1990 levels.
- The European Union’s target is more aggressive than that of the United States, which committed to reduce emissions by 40% to 43% over the same period, but behind Britain, which pledged a 68% reduction.
- China, the world’s largest emitter, has only said it aims for emissions to peak by 2030.