GS M Paper I
History, Art and Culture
Government to set up a world-class ‘Indian Institute of Heritage’ at Noida
- The government has decided to set up the ‘Indian Institute of Heritage’ at Noida, Gautam Buddha Nagar.
- Indian Institute of Heritage will be a world-class university that would focus on the conservation and research in India’s rich tangible heritage, while offering research, development and dissemination of knowledge, excellence in the education of its students and activities associated with heritage that contribute to the cultural, scientific and economic life of India.
GS M Paper II
Inter-State Water Sharing
- Mekedatu dam project:
- The Centre has given its assurance that Karnataka will not be allowed to carry out any construction on the Mekedatu dam project on the Cauvery River until its Detailed Project Report (DPR) is approved by the Cauvery Water Management Authority (CWMA).
- Mekedatu, meaning goat’s leap, is a deep gorge situated at the confluence of the rivers Cauvery and its tributary Arkavathi.
About Mekedatu Project:
- The project aims to store and supply water for drinking purposes for the Bengaluru city. Around 400 megawatts (MW) of power is also proposed to be generated through the project.
- However, Tamil Nadu objected saying that the project would affect the flow of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu.
- Tamil Nadu also argues that the project is against the final order of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) in which the SC held that no state can claim exclusive ownership or assert rights to deprive other states of the waters of inter-state rivers.
GS M Paper III
Environment and Ecology
- New Commission for Air Quality Management
- The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is set to table the Commission for Air Quality Management in the National Capital Region and Adjoining Areas Bill, 2021 in Parliament during the Monsoon Session.
About the Bill
- It provides for the constitution of a Commission for better coordination, research, identification, and resolution of problems related to air quality in the National Capital Region (NCR) and adjoining areas.
- Adjoining areas have been defined as areas in the states of Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh adjoining the NCR where any source of pollution may cause adverse impact on air quality in the NCR.
- It also dissolves the Environment Pollution Prevention and Control Authority established in the NCR in 1998.
- Pegasus Spyware
- Recently, it has been reported that Pegasus, the malicious software, has allegedly been used to secretly monitor and spy on an extensive host of public figures in India.
- It is a type of malicious software or malware classified as a spyware.
- It is designed to gain access to devices, without the knowledge of users, and gather personal information and relay it back to whoever it is that is using the software to spy.
- Pegasus has been developed by the Israeli firm NSO Group that was set up in 2010.
What is a zero-click attack?
- A zero-click attack helps spyware like Pegasus gain control over a device without human interaction or human error.
- So all awareness about how to avoid a phishing attack or which links not to click are pointless if the target is the system itself.
- Most of these attacks exploit software which receive data even before it can determine whether what is coming in is trustworthy or not, like an email client.
- Hubble Space Telescope
- NASA has returned the science instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to operational status, almost a month after suspending their work due to trouble with its payload computer.
About the Telescope
- It is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble.
- The observatory is the first major optical telescope to be placed in space and has made groundbreaking discoveries in the field of astronomy since its launch (into Low Earth orbit in 1990).
- It is said to be the “most significant advance in astronomy since Galileo’s telescope.”
- It is a part of NASA’s Great Observatories Program – a family of four space-based observatories, each observing the Universe in a different kind of light.
The other missions in the program include the visible-light Spitzer Space Telescope, Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO).