GS M Paper II
- Monsoon session of Parliament:
- The monsoon session of Parliament has begun.
- The last session of Parliament was curtailed and ended sine die on March 25 and under the Constitutional norms, the next session has to be held within six months. This period ends on September 14.
- Article 85 requires that there should not be a gap of more than six months between two sessions of Parliament.
- The Constitution does not specify when or for how many days Parliament should meet.
- The maximum gap between two sessions of Parliament cannot be more than six months. That means the Parliament should meet at least twice a year.
- A ‘session’ of Parliament is the period between the first sitting of a House and its prorogation.
- Prorogation is the end of session and not the dissolution of the house (in case of Lok Sabha, as Rajya Sabha does not dissolve).
- It is done by the President of India.
GS M Paper III
Environment and Ecology
- China’s national carbon emissions trading market:
- After running pilot projects at the local level for over a decade, China has officially launched its long-awaited national carbon emissions trading market.
- China’s Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) has replaced the EU’s as the world’s largest emissions trading system.
What is a carbon market?
- A carbon market is where greenhouse gas emitters can buy and sell greenhouse gas emissions permits or allowances.
- Companies that over-performed and have surplus targets in hand will sell them in this market; those polluting will have to buy the surplus to submit their compliance statement.
Necessity of a carbon market
- The country is trying to use the trading scheme to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as part of its effort to peak its emissions by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.
- Now, for the first time, the responsibility for controlling greenhouse gas emissions at the national level is left to the enterprises.
- IIT Ropar develops first-of-its-kind Oxygen rationing device – AMLEX
- To increase the life of medical oxygen cylinders three fold, the Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar has developed a first-of-its-kind Oxygen Rationing Device – AMLEX that supplies a required volume of oxygen to the patient during inhalation and trips when the patient exhales CO2.
- Made specifically for oxygen cylinders, AMLEX can be easily connected between oxygen supply line and the mask worn by the patient. It uses a sensor which senses and successfully detects inhalation and exhalation of the user in any environmental condition.
- Monkey B virus
- China has reported the first human infection case with Monkey B virus (BV).
About Monkey B Virus:
- First identified in 1932, the virus is learnt to have infected only 50 people till 2020, of which 21 died.
- It is an alphaherpesvirus enzootic in macaques of the genus Macaca.
- B virus is the only identified old-world-monkey herpesvirus that displays severe pathogenicity in humans.
- Currently, there are no vaccines that can protect against B virus infection.
- The infection can be transmitted via direct contact and exchange of bodily secretions of monkeys.
- NASA’s new spacecraft NEA Scout:
- NEA Scout is one of several payloads that will hitch a ride on Artemis I, which is expected to be launched in November, 2021.
What is Artemis I?
- It is an uncrewed test flight of the Orion spacecraft and SLS rocket.
- Under the Artemis programme, NASA has aimed to land the first woman on the Moon in 2024 and also establish sustainable lunar exploration programs by 2030.
What is NEA Scout?
- NEA stands for Near-Earth Asteroid.
- NEA Scout is a small spacecraft, about the size of a big shoebox.
- Its main mission is to fly by and collect data from a near-Earth asteroid.
- It will also be America’s first interplanetary mission using a special solar sail propulsion.
Significance of the mission:
- NEA Scout will begin an approximate two-year journey to fly by a near-Earth asteroid.
- Once it reaches its destination, the spacecraft will capture images of the asteroid which scientists will then study to further our understanding of these small but important solar system neighbors.
- Understanding their properties could help us develop strategies for reducing the potential damage caused in the event of an impact.
- Indian Labour Conference
- The Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh has asked Prime Minister Narendra Modi to convene the Indian Labour Conference (ILC).
- The most recent session of ILC was held in 2015, at the earliest.